Natural Sciences


Food. Clothing. Shelter. Gardens. Pets and wildlife. Medicines. Zoos and parks.  When you think about it, natural sciences play huge roles in our everyday lives- even in a urban setting like Philadelphia!


Natural Sciences is a branch of science which encompasses plant sciences, animal sciences, environmental science and human ecology, and natural phenomena and processes. The School District of Philadelphia offers five natural science-related programs of study:

Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants -fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture.

Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).

Animal Science focuses on the biology and management of food, laboratory and companion animal species., including livestock species, like cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses, dogs, and many small animal species.

Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of  the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public. Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.

Biotechnology is the use of living systems and materials to develop or make products. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.