Number of Correct Responses: A student’s number of correct responses is calculated based on the number of cues correctly identified during the timed assessment. For example, kindergarten students who take the LNF, the number of correct responses represents the number of letters identified correctly in one minute. Number of correct responses can be used to compare student performance across assessment periods or school years within grade level. Number of correct responses vary by assessment type and grade.
National Percentile Rank (NPR): A student’s national percentile rank is a norm-referenced performance measure that compares student’s score with a national reference of scores of students in the same grade who were tested on the same content during the same timeframe. NPR is useful for understanding a student’s reading ability compared to other students in the same grade nationally. Based on the number of correct responses, each student is assigned a percentile rank in the fall and in the spring. Percentiles range from 0-99. For example, a fall NPR of 23% indicates that on average, students are performing better than 23% of the nationally-normed sample based on their number of correct responses that fall. Analyzing the change in students’ performance based on their NPR frames student performance within the context of a national sample.
Tier Levels: Based on their composite score, students are placed into a performance tier that indicates their level of risk of not achieving proficiency in key literacy skills by the spring of their current school year. Tier 1 indicates that students are testing “At Target” and are on track to read proficiently. Tier 2 indicates that students need strategic intervention to ensure progress towards proficiency. Tier 3 indicates that students require intensive intervention to make progress towards becoming proficient in math or reading.
Performance Groups: There are six performance groups. We further bucket those six groups into the following four ranges:
- Well Below Average or Below Average (1-25%),
- Low Average (26-50%),
- High Average (51-75%), and
- Above Average or Well Above Average (76-99%).
These percentages are calculated using National Percentiles. While using composite scores and Tier placements are useful for tracking progress toward the District’s goals, they are not sufficient for making instructional decisions. To better determine what steps should be taken to improve the percentage of students in Tier 1 (“At Target”), we must also closely examine student performance on each of the composite’s subtests. This is important to help identify specific skill gaps that may need to be addressed to help students reach Tier 1. Depending on how a student performs on the subtests that comprise the composite score used to determine a Tier placement, students who fall into the “Below Average” or “Well Below Average” progress monitoring groups are likely to also be placed in Tiers 2 or 3. Thus, ensuring that students are performing well on all subtests is critical to their Tier placement.